The Definitive Treaty of Peace, done at Paris, September 3, 1783.

The Definitive Treaty of Peace, done at Paris, September 3, 1783.

In the name of the most holy and undivided Trinity.

It having pleased the Divine Providence to dispose the hearts of the most serene and most potent Prince George the Third, by the grace of God, king of Great Britain, France, and Ireland, defender of the faith, duke of Brunswick and Lunebourg, arch-treasurer and prince elector of the Holy Roman Empire etc., and of the United States of America, to forget all past misunderstandings and differences that have unhappily interrupted the good correspondence and friendship which they mutually wish to restore, and to establish such a beneficial and satisfactory intercourse , between the two countries upon the ground of reciprocal advantages and mutual convenience as may promote and secure to both perpetual peace and harmony; and having for this desirable end already laid the foundation of peace and reconciliation by the Provisional Articles signed at Paris on the 30th of November 1782, by the commissioners empowered on each part, which articles were agreed to be inserted in and constitute the Treaty of Peace proposed to be concluded between the Crown of Great Britain and the said United States, but which treaty was not to be concluded until terms of peace should be agreed upon between Great Britain and France and his Britannic Majesty should be ready to conclude such treaty accordingly; and the treaty between Great Britain and France having since been concluded, his Britannic Majesty and the United States of America, in order to carry into full effect the Provisional Articles above mentioned, according to the tenor thereof, have constituted and appointed, that is to say his Britannic Majesty on his part, David Hartley, Esqr., member of the Parliament of Great Britain, and the said United States on their part, John Adams, Esqr., late a commissioner of the United States of America at the court of Versailles, late delegate in Congress from the state of Massachusetts, and chief justice of the said state, and minister plenipotentiary of the said United States to their high mightinesses the States General of the United Netherlands; Benjamin Franklin, Esqr., late delegate in Congress from the state of Pennsylvania, president of the convention of the said state, and minister plenipotentiary from the United States of America at the court of Versailles; John Jay, Esqr., late president of Congress and chief justice of the state of New York, and minister plenipotentiary from the said United States at the court of Madrid; to be plenipotentiaries for the concluding and signing the present definitive treaty; who after having reciprocally communicated their respective full powers have agreed upon and confirmed the following articles.

Article 1:

His Brittanic Majesty acknowledges the said United States, viz., New Hampshire, Massachusetts Bay, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia, to be free sovereign and independent states, that he treats with them as such, and for himself, his heirs, and successors, relinquishes all claims to the government, propriety, and territorial rights of the same and every part thereof.

Article 2:

And that all disputes which might arise in future on the subject of the boundaries of the said United States may be prevented, it is hereby agreed and declared, that the following are and shall be their boundaries, viz.; from the northwest angle of Nova Scotia, viz., that nagle which is formed by a line drawn due north from the source of St. Croix River to the highlands; along the said highlands which divide those rivers that empty themselves into the river St. Lawrence, from those which fall into the Atlantic Ocean, to the northwesternmost head of Connecticut River; thence down along the middle of that river to the forty-fifth degree of north latitude; from thence by a line due west on said latitude until it strikes the river Iroquois or Cataraquy; thence along the middle of said river into Lake Ontario; through the middle of said lake until it strikes the communication by water between that lake and Lake Erie; thence along the middle of said communication into Lake Erie, through the middle of said lake until it arrives at the water communication between that lake and Lake Huron; thence along the middle of said water communication into Lake Huron, thence through the middle of said lake to the water communication between that lake and Lake Superior; thence through Lake Superior northward of the Isles Royal and Phelipeaux to the Long Lake; thence through the middle of said Long Lake and the water communication between it and the Lake of the Woods, to the said Lake of the Woods; thence through the said lake to the most northwesternmost point thereof, and from thence on a due west course to the river Mississippi; thence by a line to be drawn along the middle of the said river Mississippi until it shall intersect the northernmost part of the thirty-first degree of north latitude, South, by a line to be drawn due east from the determination of the line last mentioned in the latitude of thirty-one degrees of the equator, to the middle of the river Apalachicola or Catahouche; thence along the middle thereof to its junction with the Flint River, thence straight to the head of Saint Mary’s River; and thence down along the middle of Saint Mary’s River to the Atlantic Ocean; east, by a line to be drawn along the middle of the river Saint Croix, from its mouth in the Bay of Fundy to its source, and from its source directly north to the aforesaid highlands which divide the rivers that fall into the Atlantic Ocean from those which fall into the river Saint Lawrence; comprehending all islands within twenty leagues of any part of the shores of the United States, and lying between lines to be drawn due east from the points where the aforesaid boundaries between Nova Scotia on the one part and East Florida on the other shall, respectively, touch the Bay of Fundy and the Atlantic Ocean, excepting such islands as now are or heretofore have been within the limits of the said province of Nova Scotia.

Article 3:

It is agreed that the people of the United States shall continue to enjoy unmolested the right to take fish of every kind on the Grand Bank and on all the other banks of Newfoundland, also in the Gulf of Saint Lawrence and at all other places in the sea, where the inhabitants of both countries used at any time heretofore to fish. And also that the inhabitants of the United States shall have liberty to take fish of every kind on such part of the coast of Newfoundland as British fishermen shall use, (but not to dry or cure the same on that island) and also on the coasts, bays and creeks of all other of his Brittanic Majesty’s dominions in America; and that the American fishermen shall have liberty to dry and cure fish in any of the unsettled bays, harbors, and creeks of Nova Scotia, Magdalen Islands, and Labrador, so long as the same shall remain unsettled, but so soon as the same or either of them shall be settled, it shall not be lawful for the said fishermen to dry or cure fish at such settlement without a previous agreement for that purpose with the inhabitants, proprietors, or possessors of the ground.

Article 4:

It is agreed that creditors on either side shall meet with no lawful impediment to the recovery of the full value in sterling money of all bona fide debts heretofore contracted.

Article 5:

It is agreed that Congress shall earnestly recommend it to the legislatures of the respective states to provide for the restitution of all estates, rights, and properties, which have been confiscated belonging to real British subjects; and also of the estates, rights, and properties of persons resident in districts in the possession on his Majesty’s arms and who have not borne arms against the said United States. And that persons of any other decription shall have free liberty to go to any part or parts of any of the thirteen United States and therein to remain twelve months unmolested in their endeavors to obtain the restitution of such of their estates, rights, and properties as may have been confiscated; and that Congress shall also earnestly recommend to the several states a reconsideration and revision of all acts or laws regarding the premises, so as to render the said laws or acts perfectly consistent not only with justice and equity but with that spirit of conciliation which on the return of the blessings of peace should universally prevail. And that Congress shall also earnestly recommend to the several states that the estates, rights, and properties, of such last mentioned persons shall be restored to them, they refunding to any persons who may be now in possession the bona fide price (where any has been given) which such persons may have paid on purchasing any of the said lands, rights, or properties since the confiscation.

And it is agreed that all persons who have any interest in confiscated lands, either by debts, marriage settlements, or otherwise, shall meet with no lawful impediment in the prosecution of their just rights.

Article 6:

That there shall be no future confiscations made nor any prosecutions commenced against any person or persons for, or by reason of, the part which he or they may have taken in the present war, and that no person shall on that account suffer any future loss or damage, either in his person, liberty, or property; and that those who may be in confinement on such charges at the time of the ratification of the treaty in America shall be immediately set at liberty, and the prosecutions so commenced be discontinued.

Article 7:

There shall be a firm and perpetual peace between his Brittanic Majesty and the said states, and between the subjects of the one and the citizens of the other, wherefore all hostilities both by sea and land shall from henceforth cease. All prisoners on both sides shall be set at liberty, and his Brittanic Majesty shall with all convenient speed, and without causing any destruction, or carrying away any Negroes or other property of the American inhabitants, withdraw all his armies, garrisons, and fleets from the said United States, and from every post, place, and harbor within the same; leaving in all fortifications, the American artilery that may be therein; and shall also order and cause all archives, records, deeds, and papers belonging to any of the said states, or their citizens, which in the course of the war may have fallen into the hands of his officers, to be forthwith restored and delivered to the proper states and persons to whom they belong.

Article 8:

The navigation of the river Mississippi, from its source to the ocean, shall forever remain free and open to the subjects of Great Britain and the citizens of the United States.

Article 9:

In case it should so happen that any place or territory belonging to Great Britain or to the United States should have been conquered by the arms of either from the other before the arrival of the said Provisional Articles in America, it is agreed that the same shall be restored without difficulty and without requiring any compensation.

Article 10:

The solemn ratifications of the present treaty expedited in good and due form shall be exchanged between the contracting parties in the space of six months or sooner, if possible, to be computed from the day of the signatures of the present treaty. In witness whereof we the undersigned, their ministers plenipotentiary, have in their name and in virtue of our full powers, signed with our hands the present definitive treaty and caused the seals of our arms to be affixed thereto.

Done at Paris, this third day of September in the year of our Lord, one thousand seven hundred and eighty-three.



French Declaration on the Rights of Man, Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen (August 26, 1789).

French Declaration on the Rights of Man, Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen (August 26, 1789).


Approved by the National Assembly of France, August 26, 1789

The representatives of the French people, organized as a National Assembly, believing that the ignorance, neglect, or contempt of the rights of man are the sole cause of public calamities and of the corruption of governments, have determined to set forth in a solemn declaration the natural, unalienable, and sacred rights of man, in order that this declaration, being constantly before all the members of the Social body, shall remind them continually of their rights and duties; in order that the acts of the legislative power, as well as those of the executive power, may be compared at any moment with the objects and purposes of all political institutions and may thus be more respected, and, lastly, in order that the grievances of the citizens, based hereafter upon simple and incontestable principles, shall tend to the maintenance of the constitution and redound to the happiness of all. Therefore the National Assembly recognizes and proclaims, in the presence and under the auspices of the Supreme Being, the following rights of man and of the citizen:


  1. Men are born and remain free and equal in rights. Social distinctions may be founded only upon the general good.
  2. The aim of all political association is the preservation of the natural and imprescriptible rights of man. These rights are liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression.
  3. The principle of all sovereignty resides essentially in the nation. No body nor individual may exercise any authority which does not proceed directly from the nation.
  4. Liberty consists in the freedom to do everything which injures no one else; hence the exercise of the natural rights of each man has no limits except those which assure to the other members of the society the enjoyment of the same rights. These limits can only be determined by law.
  5. Law can only prohibit such actions as are hurtful to society. Nothing may be prevented which is not forbidden by law, and no one may be forced to do anything not provided for by law.
  6. Law is the expression of the general will. Every citizen has a right to participate personally, or through his representative, in its foundation. It must be the same for all, whether it protects or punishes. All citizens, being equal in the eyes of the law, are equally eligible to all dignities and to all public positions and occupations, according to their abilities, and without distinction except that of their virtues and talents.
  7. No person shall be accused, arrested, or imprisoned except in the cases and according to the forms prescribed by law. Any one soliciting, transmitting, executing, or causing to be executed, any arbitrary order, shall be punished. But any citizen summoned or arrested in virtue of the law shall submit without delay, as resistance constitutes an offense.
  8. The law shall provide for such punishments only as are strictly and obviously necessary, and no one shall suffer punishment except it be legally inflicted in virtue of a law passed and promulgated before the commission of the offense.
  9. As all persons are held innocent until they shall have been declared guilty, if arrest shall be deemed indispensable, all harshness not essential to the securing of the prisoner’s person shall be severely repressed by law.
  10. No one shall be disquieted on account of his opinions, including his religious views, provided their manifestation does not disturb the public order established by law.
  11. The free communication of ideas and opinions is one of the most precious of the rights of man. Every citizen may, accordingly, speak, write, and print with freedom, but shall be responsible for such abuses of this freedom as shall be defined by law.
  12. The security of the rights of man and of the citizen requires public military forces. These forces are, therefore, established for the good of all and not for the personal advantage of those to whom they shall be intrusted.
  13. A common contribution is essential for the maintenance of the public forces and for the cost of administration. This should be equitably distributed among all the citizens in proportion to their means.
  14. All the citizens have a right to decide, either personally or by their representatives, as to the necessity of the public contribution; to grant this freely; to know to what uses it is put; and to fix the proportion, the mode of assessment and of collection and the duration of the taxes.
  15. Society has the right to require of every public agent an account of his administration.
  16. A society in which the observance of the law is not assured, nor the separation of powers defined, has no constitution at all.
  17. Since property is an inviolable and sacred right, no one shall be deprived thereof except where public necessity, legally determined, shall clearly demand it, and then only on condition that the owner shall have been previously and equitably indemnified.

English Bill of Rights, 1689

English Bill of Rights, 1689, An Act Declaring the Rights and Liberties of the Subject, and Settling the Succession of the Crown (Bill of Rights), 1689, 1 W. & M., c. 2 (Eng.).

An Act Declaring the Rights and Liberties of the Subject and Settling the Succession of the Crown

Whereas the Lords Spiritual and Temporal and Commons assembled at Westminster, lawfully, fully and freely representing all the estates of the people of this realm, did upon the thirteenth day of February in the year of our Lord one thousand six hundred eighty-eight [old style date] present unto their Majesties, then called and known by the names and style of William and Mary, prince and princess of Orange, being present in their proper persons, a certain declaration in writing made by the said Lords and Commons in the words following, viz.:

  • Whereas the late King James the Second, by the assistance of divers evil counsellors, judges and ministers employed by him, did endeavour to subvert and extirpate the Protestant religion and the laws and liberties of this kingdom;
  • By assuming and exercising a power of dispensing with and suspending of laws and the execution of laws without consent of Parliament; By committing and prosecuting divers worthy prelates for humbly petitioning to be excused from concurring to the said assumed power;
  • By issuing and causing to be executed a commission under the great seal for erecting a court called the Court of Commissioners for Ecclesiastical Causes;
  • By levying money for and to the use of the Crown by pretence of prerogative for other time and in other manner than the same was granted by Parliament;
  • By raising and keeping a standing army within this kingdom in time of peace without consent of Parliament, and quartering soldiers contrary to law;
  • By causing several good subjects being Protestants to be disarmed at the same time when papists were both armed and employed contrary to law;
  • By violating the freedom of election of members to serve in Parliament;
  • By prosecutions in the Court of King’s Bench for matters and causes cognizable only in Parliament, and by divers other arbitrary and illegal courses;
  • And whereas of late years partial corrupt and unqualified persons have been returned and served on juries in trials, and particularly divers jurors in trials for high treason which were not freeholders;
  • And excessive bail hath been required of persons committed in criminal cases to elude the benefit of the laws made for the liberty of the subjects;
  • And excessive fines have been imposed;
  • And illegal and cruel punishments inflicted;
  • And several grants and promises made of fines and forfeitures before any conviction or judgment against the persons upon whom the same were to be levied;
  • All which are utterly and directly contrary to the known laws and statutes and freedom of this realm;

And whereas the said late King James the Second having abdicated the government and the throne being thereby vacant, his Highness the prince of Orange (whom it hath pleased Almighty God to make the glorious instrument of delivering this kingdom from popery and arbitrary power) did (by the advice of the Lords Spiritual and Temporal and divers principal persons of the Commons) cause letters to be written to the Lords Spiritual and Temporal being Protestants, and other letters to the several counties, cities, universities, boroughs and cinque ports, for the choosing of such persons to represent them as were of right to be sent to Parliament, to meet and sit at Westminster upon the two and twentieth day of January in this year one thousand six hundred eighty and eight [old style date], in order to such an establishment as that their religion, laws and liberties might not again be in danger of being subverted, upon which letters elections having been accordingly made;

And thereupon the said Lords Spiritual and Temporal and Commons, pursuant to their respective letters and elections, being now assembled in a full and free representative of this nation, taking into their most serious consideration the best means for attaining the ends aforesaid, do in the first place (as their ancestors in like case have usually done) for the vindicating and asserting their ancient rights and liberties declare:

  • That the pretended power of suspending the laws or the execution of laws by regal authority without consent of Parliament is illegal;
  • That the pretended power of dispensing with laws or the execution of laws by regal authority, as it hath been assumed and exercised of late, is illegal;
  • That the commission for erecting the late Court of Commissioners for Ecclesiastical Causes, and all other commissions and courts of like nature, are illegal and pernicious;
  • That levying money for or to the use of the Crown by pretence of prerogative, without grant of Parliament, for longer time, or in other manner than the same is or shall be granted, is illegal;
  • That it is the right of the subjects to petition the king, and all commitments and prosecutions for such petitioning are illegal;
  • That the raising or keeping a standing army within the kingdom in time of peace, unless it be with consent of Parliament, is against law;
  • That the subjects which are Protestants may have arms for their defence suitable to their conditions and as allowed by law;
  • That election of members of Parliament ought to be free;
  • That the freedom of speech and debates or proceedings in Parliament ought not to be impeached or questioned in any court or place out of Parliament;
  • That excessive bail ought not to be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted;
  • That jurors ought to be duly impanelled and returned, and jurors which pass upon men in trials for high treason ought to be freeholders;
  • That all grants and promises of fines and forfeitures of particular persons before conviction are illegal and void;
  • And that for redress of all grievances, and for the amending, strengthening and preserving of the laws, Parliaments ought to be held frequently.

And they do claim, demand and insist upon all and singular the premises as their undoubted rights and liberties, and that no declarations, judgments, doings or proceedings to the prejudice of the people in any of the said premises ought in any wise to be drawn hereafter into consequence or example; to which demand of their rights they are particularly encouraged by the declaration of his Highness the prince of Orange as being the only means for obtaining a full redress and remedy therein.

Having therefore an entire confidence that his said Highness the prince of Orange will perfect the deliverance so far advanced by him, and will still preserve them from the violation of their rights which they have here asserted, and from all other attempts upon their religion, rights and liberties, the said Lords Spiritual and Temporal and Commons assembled at Westminster do resolve that William and Mary, prince and princess of Orange, be and be declared king and queen of England, France and Ireland and the dominions thereunto belonging, to hold the crown and royal dignity of the said kingdoms and dominions to them, the said prince and princess, during their lives and the life of the survivor to them, and that the sole and full exercise of the regal power be only in and executed by the said prince of Orange in the names of the said prince and princess during their joint lives, and after their deceases the said crown and royal dignity of the same kingdoms and dominions to be to the heirs of the body of the said princess, and for default of such issue to the Princess Anne of Denmark and the heirs of her body, and for default of such issue to the heirs of the body of the said prince of Orange. And the Lords Spiritual and Temporal and Commons do pray the said prince and princess to accept the same accordingly.

And that the oaths hereafter mentioned be taken by all persons of whom the oaths have allegiance and supremacy might be required by law, instead of them; and that the said oaths of allegiance and supremacy be abrogated.

“I, A.B., do sincerely promise and swear that I will be faithful and bear true allegiance to their Majesties King William and Queen Mary. So help me God.”

“I, A.B., do swear that I do from my heart abhor, detest and abjure as impious and heretical this damnable doctrine and position, that princes excommunicated or deprived by the Pope or any authority of the see of Rome may be deposed or murdered by their subjects or any other whatsoever. And I do declare that no foreign prince, person, prelate, state or potentate hath or ought to have any jurisdiction, power, superiority, pre-eminence or authority, ecclesiastical or spiritual, within this realm. So help me God.”

Upon which their said Majesties did accept the crown and royal dignity of the kingdoms of England, France and Ireland, and the dominions thereunto belonging, according to the resolution and desire of the said Lords and Commons contained in the said declaration.

And thereupon their Majesties were pleased that the said Lords Spiritual and Temporal and Commons, being the two Houses of Parliament, should continue to sit, and with their Majesties’ royal concurrence make effectual provision for the settlement of the religion, laws and liberties of this kingdom, so that the same for the future might not be in danger again of being subverted, to which the said Lords Spiritual and Temporal and Commons did agree, and proceed to act accordingly.

Now in pursuance of the premises the said Lords Spiritual and Temporal and Commons in Parliament assembled, for the ratifying, confirming and establishing the said declaration and the articles, clauses, matters and things therein contained by the force of law made in due form by authority of Parliament, do pray that it may be declared and enacted that all and singular the rights and liberties asserted and claimed in the said declaration are the true, ancient and indubitable rights and liberties of the people of this kingdom, and so shall be esteemed, allowed, adjudged, deemed and taken to be; and that all and every the particulars aforesaid shall be firmly and strictly holden and observed as they are expressed in the said declaration, and all officers and ministers whatsoever shall serve their Majesties and their successors according to the same in all time to come.

And the said Lords Spiritual and Temporal and Commons, seriously considering how it hath pleased Almighty God in his marvellous providence and merciful goodness to this nation to provide and preserve their said Majesties’ royal persons most happily to reign over us upon the throne of their ancestors, for which they render unto him from the bottom of their hearts their humblest thanks and praises, do truly, firmly, assuredly and in the sincerity of their hearts think, and do hereby recognize, acknowledge and declare, that King James the Second having abdicated the government, and their Majesties having accepted the crown and royal dignity as aforesaid, their said Majesties did become, were, are and of right ought to be by the laws of this realm our sovereign liege lord and lady, king and queen of England, France and Ireland and the dominions thereunto belonging, in and to whose princely persons the royal state, crown and dignity of the said realms with all honours, styles, titles, regalities, prerogatives, powers, jurisdictions and authorities to the same belonging and appertaining are most fully, rightfully and entirely invested and incorporated, united and annexed. And for preventing all questions and divisions in this realm by reason of any pretended titles to the crown, and for preserving a certainty in the succession thereof, in and upon which the unity, peace, tranquility and safety of this nation doth under God wholly consist and depend, the said Lords Spiritual and Temporal and Commons do beseech their Majesties that it may be enacted, established and declared, that the crown and regal government of the said kingdoms and dominions, with all and singular the premises thereunto belonging and appertaining, shall be and continue to their said Majesties and the survivor of them during their lives and the life of the survivor of them, and that the entire, perfect and full exercise of the regal power and government be only in and executed by his Majesty in the names of both their Majesties during their joint lives; and after their deceases the said crown and premises shall be and remain to the heirs of the body of her Majesty, and for default of such issue to her Royal Highness the Princess Anne of Denmark and the heirs of the body of his said Majesty; and thereunto the said Lords Spiritual and Temporal and Commons do in the name of all the people aforesaid most humbly and faithfully submit themselves, their heirs and posterities for ever, and do faithfully promise that they will stand to, maintain and defend their said Majesties, and also the limitation and succession of the crown herein specified and contained, to the utmost of their powers with their lives and estates against all persons whatsoever that shall attempt anything to the contrary.

And whereas it hath been found by experience that it is inconsistent with the safety and welfare of this Protestant kingdom to be governed by a popish prince, or by any king or queen marrying a papist, the said Lords Spiritual and Temporal and Commons do further pray that it may be enacted, that all and every person and persons that is, are or shall be reconciled to or shall hold communion with the see or Church of Rome, or shall profess the popish religion, or shall marry a papist, shall be excluded and be for ever incapable to inherit, possess or enjoy the crown and government of this realm and Ireland and the dominions thereunto belonging or any part of the same, or to have, use or exercise any regal power, authority or jurisdiction within the same; and in all and every such case or cases the people of these realms shall be and are hereby absolved of their allegiance; and the said crown and government shall from time to time descend to and be enjoyed by such person or persons being Protestants as should have inherited and enjoyed the same in case the said person or persons so reconciled, holding communion or professing or marrying as aforesaid were naturally dead; and that every king and queen of this realm who at any time hereafter shall come to and succeed in the imperial crown of this kingdom shall on the first day of the meeting of the first Parliament next after his or her coming to the crown, sitting in his or her throne in the House of Peers in the presence of the Lords and Commons therein assembled, or at his or her coronation before such person or persons who shall administer the coronation oath to him or her at the time of his or her taking the said oath (which shall first happen), make, subscribe and audibly repeat the declaration mentioned in the statute made in the thirtieth year of the reign of King Charles the Second entitled, An Act for the more effectual preserving the king’s person and government by disabling papists from sitting in either House of Parliament. But if it shall happen that such king or queen upon his or her succession to the crown of this realm shall be under the age of twelve years, then every such king or queen shall make, subscribe and audibly repeat the same declaration at his or her coronation or the first day of the meeting of the first Parliament as aforesaid which shall first happen after such king or queen shall have attained the said age of twelve years.

All which their Majesties are contented and pleased shall be declared, enacted and established by authority of this present Parliament, and shall stand, remain and be the law of this realm for ever; and the same are by their said Majesties, by and with the advice and consent of the Lords Spiritual and Temporal and Commons in Parliament assembled and by the authority of the same, declared, enacted and established accordingly.

  1. And be it further declared and enacted by the authority aforesaid, that from and after this present session of Parliament no dispensation by non obstante of or to any statute or any part thereof shall be allowed, but that the same shall be held void and of no effect, except a dispensation be allowed of in such statute, and except in such cases as shall be specially provided for by one or more bill or bills to be passed during this present session of Parliament.

III. Provided that no charter or grant or pardon granted before the three and twentieth day of October in the year of our Lord one thousand six hundred eighty-nine [old style date] shall be any ways impeached or invalidated by this Act, but that the same shall be and remain of the same force and effect in law and no other than as if this Act had never been made.



95% of Arab Women Never Had Orgasm 95% of arab women never had orgasm 95% of Arab Women Never Had Orgasm tejasvi surya arab 750x350

95% of Arab Women Never Had Orgasm

“95% of Arab Women Never Had Orgasm” भाजपा के बेंगलोर (साउथ) के सांसद तेजस्वी सूर्या के इस ट्वीट ने इंटरनेट की दुनिया में आग लगा दी है। हालाँकि यह ट्वीट उनके सांसद बनने से पहले का है जब उन्होंने तारिक फतेह को कॉट करते हुए 2015 में यह लिखा था। उस समय वे सांसद भी नहीं थे।  लेकिन जैसे ही उनका स्क्रीनशॉट वायरल हुआ, तैसे ही इंटरनेट की दुनिया में जैसे भूचाल आ गया। अरब देशों के बड़े बड़े राजनयिकों के अलावा शाही परिवारों के लोगों ने भी इस ट्वीट पर विरोध जताया और भारत सरकार को कोसा। कोसने का लेवल यहाँ तक रहा कि इस्लाम फोबिया के नाम से ट्रेंड 21 अप्रेल को समूचे विश्व में टॉप कर गया और आर्टिकल लिखे जाने तक इस हैशटैग के साथ लगभग 697000 ट्वीट हो चुके थे। इस मामले की संवेदना को समझते हुए प्रधानमंत्री को भी बाकायदा पब्लिक में आकर कहना पड़ा कि हम सबको मिल कर धर्म, जाति आदि का भेदभाव किये बिना वायरस से लड़ना है। ज्ञातव्य है कि कोरोना वायरस के फैलाव के शुरू होने के बाद कुछ लोगों ने (जिसमें वरिष्ठ मीडिया भी शामिल था ) कोरोना के फैलाव के लिए दिल्ली में एक जमात के कार्यक्रम को दोषी ठहराना शुरू कर दिया था। एक ऐसे समय में जब समूचा विश्व घरों में बंद है , ऐसे में हर छोटी से छोटी बात को नोटिस किया जा रहा है। हालाँकि जमात में जो हुआ उसको जायज ठहराना अपने आप में नाजायज है फिर भी केवल जमात को ही दोषी ठहराना केवल कोरी राजनीति के अलावा कुछ नहीं है।  हरियाणवी कुश्ती स्टार बबिता फोगट भी इस मामले में कूदी और सीधे आरोप लगाया कि भारत में कोरोना जमात की वजह से फैला है। केंद्रीय स्वास्थ्य मंत्रालय ने 19 अप्रेल को आंकड़े जारी करते हुए कहा कि भारत में कुल कोरोना मरीजों में से 29% के लगभग जमात से हैं। अब कम से कम इसे टोटल तो नहीं कहा जा सकता। अन्य 71 % का जमात से कोई लेना देना नहीं है और भारत में पहले कोरोना के मरीज का भी जमात से कोई लेना देना नहीं था। इसे केवल एक सूटेबल राजनीति का ही भाग माना जा सकता है इसके अलावा कुछ नहीं। आंकड़े बताते हैं कि लगभग समूचे विश्व में धार्मिक समूहों की वजह से कोरोना का फैलाव बहुत ज्यादा तेजी से हुआ है। इटली में चर्च तो ब्रिटेन में इस्कॉन की इसमें भूमिका पहले ही सामने आ चुकी है। ऐसे में वायरस को धर्म से जोड़ना राजनीति के अलावा कुछ नहीं है , जिसमें मैं स्वयं को शामिल नहीं पाता हूँ।

खैर जो भी हो यह इस्लाम फोबिया वाली बात सौ आने सही है। किसी भी धर्म के लोग पूरी तरह खराब नहीं हो सकते। यह सच है कि इस्लाम के अंदर कटटरपन है और आजकल आतंकवाद के फैलाव में इस्लाम धर्म को मानने वालों का रोल किसी से छिपा नहीं है। फिर भी मैं यह मानता हूँ कि इसके लिए शरीफ लोगों को तंग नहीं किया जा सकता है। यह भेदभाव हमें खराब करेगा और अरब देशों का यह गुस्सा उसकी शुरुआत भर है। तेल सप्लाई में और भारत के बिजनेस में अरब देशों का बहुत बड़ा रोल है और उसे कमतर कर आंकना ही मूर्खता है। इस्लाम को गाली दे राजनीति चलाना कभी न कभी तो भारी पड़ना ही था। पिछले तीन दिन से हम यह रिजल्ट देख रहे हैं। ठीक है कि भारत में इस्लाम बहुलता में नहीं है, लेकिन इसका मतलब यह नहीं कि समूचे विश्व में नहीं है। ट्रोल आर्मी को यह एहसास होना चाहिए था कि वैश्वीकरण के इस समय में हम किसी भी देश से दूर नहीं हो सकते हैं, खासकर जब हमारे व्यापारिक हित जुड़े हुए हों। इस्लाम जनसँख्या के आधार  पर विश्व का सबसे ज्यादा माने जाने वाला धर्म है और ज्यादातर देशों के साथ हमारे व्यापारिक रिश्ते भी हैं।  आप समझिये कि अकेले UAE के साथ व्यापार की बात को भी छोड़ दो तो भी लगभग तीन करोड़ भारतीय वहाँ पर काम करते हैं। यह आंकड़ा बता सकता है कि जो बीज हम बो रहे हैं यदि इसकी फसल भारत से बाहर कटनी शुरू हो गयी तो यह भारत और भारतीयों के लिए एक बहुत बड़ा झटका होगी। अतः हमें इस्लाम अथवा धर्मों को राजनीति का भाग बनाने से बचना होगा और इस बात को अहमियत देनी होगी कि भारत एक है  और भारत में रहने  वाले सभी नागरिक भारतीय हैं। इस्लाम को गाली देना देशभक्ति नहीं।

Donald Trump donald trump Donald Trump donald trump 750x350

Donald Trump

डोनाल्ड ट्रम्प बोलने में काफी एग्रेसिव हैं और उनकी भाषा का कभी कोई ठोर ठिकाना नहीं होता। अक्सर अपनी भाषा के लिए उनकी आलोचना की जाती है। जब से कोरोना का कहर समूची दुनिया में बरपा है तब से अमेरिका भी एक बड़ी समस्या में फंस गया है। न केवल अमेरिका इस समय पर इस समय इस बीमारी का एपिक सेंटर बना हुआ है, बल्कि विश्व का सबसे उन्नत देश होने का दावा करने वाला अमेरिका इस समय संसाधनों की कमी से भी गुजर रहा है। अमेरिका के ड्रग कंट्रोलर एफडीए ने कुनीन की गोली को इस बीमारी के इलाज में कारगर बताया है और उसके बाद से ही अमेरिका इस दवाई के स्टॉक में लगा हुआ है। अमेरिका की ही तरह भारत में ICMR ने भी कुनीन को अपने हैल्थ वर्कर्स, डॉक्टर्स और कोरोना के मरीजों के आस पास रहने वालों के लिए प्रिवेंटिव मेडीशियन के रूप में अप्रूव किया है। इसके बाद भारत ने कुनीन के एक्सपोर्ट को बंद कर दिया। यहाँ ज्ञातव्य है कि भारत कुनीन का विश्व में सबसे बड़ा उत्पादक है।

अमेरिकी राष्ट्रपति ट्रम्प ने भारत के प्रधानमंत्री मोदी से बात की और प्रधानमंत्री से रिक्वेस्ट की कि प्रतिबंध में ढील दे कुनीन की कुछ सप्लाई अमेरिका को सुनिश्चित की जाए। इसके ठीक एक दिन बाद यानि 7 अप्रेल को ट्रम्प अमेरिका में एक प्रैस कॉन्फ्रेंस को सम्बोधित कर रहे थे और इस दौरान एक रिपोर्टर ने उनसे सवाल पूछा।  ट्रम्प और रिपोर्टर की कन्वर्जेशन निम्नलिखित है : 

‘‘Reporter: Are you worried about retaliation to your decision to ban export of medical Goods like Indian Prime Minister Modi’s decision to not export hydroxychloroquine to the United states or other countries?
Trump: I don’t like that decision if that’s. I didn’t hear that, that was his decision. I know that he stopped it for other countries. I spoke to him yesterday but a very good talk and we will see whether or not that says. I would be surprised if he would, you know because India does very well with the United States. For many years they have been taking advantage of the United States on trade, so i would be suprised of that worse decision. He’d have to tell me that, I spoke to him Sunday morning, called him and I said would appreciate your allowing our supply to come out. If he doesn’t alllow it to come out that would be okay, but of course there may be retaliation why wouldn’t.”

पत्रकार ने सवाल किया, ‘‘आपने चिकित्सा से जुड़े सामानों के निर्यात पर रोक लगाने का फैसला लिया है। क्या आपको नहीं लगता कि इस फैसले के प्रतिशोध में अन्य देश कदम उठाएंगे, जैसे भारत के प्रधानमंत्री नरेंद्र मोदी ने अमेरिका या किसी अन्य देश को हाइड्रॉक्सिक्लोरोक्वीन का निर्यात नहीं करने का निर्णय लिया है?’’

ट्रंप का उत्तर है, ‘‘यदि उन्होंने (मोदी ने) ऐसा निर्णय लिया है तो मुझे यह पसंद नहीं। मैंने ऐसा नहीं सुना, यह उनका निर्णय है। मैं जानता हूं कि उन्होंने अन्य देशों के लिये निर्यात (हाइड्रॉक्सिक्लोरोक्वीन का) रोक दिया है। मैंने कल उनसे बात की, हमारी काफी अच्छी बात हुई। हम देखेंगे कि वह क्या करते हैं। मुझे हैरानी होगी यदि वह अमेरिका को भी निर्यात रोक देते हैं, क्योंकि आपको मालूम है कि भारत और अमेरिका के कई साल के अच्छे संबंध हैं। उन्होंने कई साल से व्यापार में अमेरिका से फायदा उठाया है, इस कारण भी मुझे हैरानी होगी। उन्हें मुझे इसके बारे में बताना चाहिये था, मैंने रविवार की सुबह उनसे बात की, मैंने उन्हें फोन किया था। मैंने कहा कि यदि वे हमें हमारी सप्लाई भेजते हैं तो यह सराहनीय होगा। यदि वे इसकी अनुमति नहीं देते हैं…तब भी ठीक है, निश्चित तौर पर प्रतिशोध में कदम उठाये जाये जा सकते हैं, क्यों नहीं उठाये जायेंगे।’’

सभी लोग अलग अलग तरीके से इस बात को समझाने की कोशिश कर रहे हैं। मेरे लिए यह भाषा घोर आपत्तिजनक है। इसका उत्तर यह है:

पहला, अमेरिका अपने देश के दिवा निर्माताओं के हितों को सुरक्षित रखने के लिए हमेशा प्रतिबंध लगा कर रखता है और विदेशी कंपनियों को वहां इजाजत नहीं मिलती है।  कोरोना का कहर भारत के लिए भी उतना ही गंभीर है जितना अमेरिका के लिए। हमारी 140 करोड़ जनसंख्या को भी सुरक्षित रखना सरकार का कर्त्तव्य है।  हमने ठीक वैसे ही प्रतिबंध लगाया है जिस प्रकार अमेरिका ने लगाया है।  अमेरिका ने भारत से रिक्वेस्ट की इसमें कोई दिक्कत नहीं और मानवीय आधार पर सप्लाई को खोला जाना गलत भी नहीं है। लेकिन यह मानवीय आधार पर हो न कि जबरदस्ती।

मुझे यहाँ प्रतिशोध शब्द से गहरी आपत्ति है। रिपोर्टर ने किस भाषा का प्रयोग किया हमें उससे लेना देना नहीं है , लेकिन राष्ट्रअध्यक्ष ने किस भाषा में उत्तर दिया यह मायने रखता है। पहला ट्रम्प ने कहा कि उन्होंने भारत को कहा कि वो उनकी सप्लाई सुनिश्चित करें।  मुझे याद नहीं आता कोई ऐसा समझौता अब तक हुआ है जिसमें भारत ने अमेरिका को कुनीन की सप्लाई के लिए कहा है तो यह सप्लाई उनकी कैसे हुई ? सप्लाई उनकी तब होती यदि समझौता होता और समझौते के बावजूद भी भारत उसे न भेजता। यह हेकड़ी है और इस हेकड़ी को स्पष्ट तौर पर समझा जा सकता है।

दूसरा 1965 को याद कर रहा हूँ। भारत पाकिस्तान के प्रथम युद्ध के दौरान अमेरिका ने भारत को गेहूं की सप्लाई रोक दी थी। क्या वहां उनका मानवीय आधार खत्म हो गया था ?  तब तात्कालीन प्रधानमंत्री श्री लाल बहादुर शास्त्री ने जय जवान, जय किसान का नारा देते हुए भारत में उत्पादन बढ़ाया और सप्ताह में एक दिन व्रत रखने के लिए समस्त भारतीय नागरिकों को कहा गया।  तब जाकर भारत में भुखमरी क़ाबू आई थी।  ऐसे में अमेरिका को कहाँ तक दोस्त माना जाए।

तीसरा स्पष्ट तौर पर ट्रम्प ने पत्रकार की हाँ में हाँ मिलाते हुए कहा है कि यदि भारत ने उन्हें उनकी कथित सप्लाई नहीं दी तो प्रतिशोधात्मक कार्यवाही की जा सकती है। यह भाषा अत्यंत आपत्तिजनक एवं घटिया है और मैं भारत का नागरिक होने के नाते इसका घोर विरोध करता हूँ।

अब ट्रम्प की इस भाषा का समर्थन कोई करे तो करे इससे कोई भी फर्क नहीं पड़ता है।  न तो सप्लाई उनकी थी और न ही उस देश को किसी भी प्रकार की प्रतिशोधात्मक कार्यवाही करने का ही कोई हक़ है जबकि उसने मेडिकल उपकरणों के एक्सपोर्ट पर पूरी तरह से प्रतिबंध लगाया हुआ है और अमेरिकी रेगुलेटर एफडीए भारतीय कंपनियों को वहां पर जेनेरिक अथवा अन्य दवाइयां बेचने पर लगातार रोक लगाता रहा है ताकि उनके देश की कंपनियों के हित सुरक्षित रहें।